Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology often deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.
Darwinism is not a testable scientific theory, but a metaphysical research program.
Anatomical comparison is typical in evolution theory
Evolutionary biology explains homologous structures adapted to different purposes as the result of descent with modification from a common ancestor. ... Charles Darwin explained homologous structures as meaning that the organisms concerned shared a body plan from a common ancestor, and that taxa were branches of a single tree of life.
This is what we might call connoisseurial art history, which is what you might have found in the 19th century. Connoisseurs began to compare works scattered across churches and monasteries, classifying them and trying to discern common authorship. The works were identified for certain similarities of technique or ways of painting, for instance, hands or ears.
The way art experts approach this problem is by comparing artworks according to a number of high-level concepts such as the artist's use of space, texture, form, shape, colour and so on. Experts may also consider the way the artist uses movement in the picture, harmony, variety, balance, contrast, proportion and pattern.
Comparative genomics is an exciting field of biological research in which researchers use a variety of tools, including computer-based analysis, to compare the complete genome sequences of different species.
Chimpanzees share about 98 percent of our DNA, but bananas share about 50 percent, and we are not 98 percent chimp or 50 percent banana. We are entirely human and unique. We are talking about the difference between using a twig as a tool and using the internet. It is humans that have speech and language, humans that have culture, art, music, science and technology, humans who remember the past, plan for the future, fear death and pay taxes. ... Sometimes, amid all this scientific talk of genetic and cognitive similarity, we can lose sight of the most important facts.
Clearly human DNA and chimp DNA is very similar. We don't dispute that. ... "There are three kinds of lies: Lies; damn lies; and statistics." Scientists can present whatever numbers they want to emphasize whatever they want. Which numbers are the most important is really a matter of opinion. Evolutionists always present the numbers in such a way as to diminish the difference between humans and chimpanzees to make it more plausible that they have a common ancestor. Similarity can either be the result of common ancestry or common design. The 96% (or whatever) similarity alone doesn't prove common ancestry. It might be the result of a designer making two very similar things.